Gender has been the privileged optic through which care ethics has been theorised. However, a long line of theorists has argued that gender intersects with other vectors such as race, class and disability in the social world, including in car- ing practices. This paper contributes to the emergent literature on intersectionality and care ethics by focusing on how racialised difference affects care practices and therefore care ethics. It focuses on competence and alterity, and recognition and communication, as two elements that point to how racialised care is risky. It argues that slavery and colonialism have underpinned racial hierarchies marking contemporary racialised care encounters. As a result, racially marked people’s skills are often undervalued and their competency questioned even as race becomes an increasingly important difference between who cares and who receives care. Secondly, racial hierarchies in who gets care and what that care looks like can make care so distinctive as to be unrecognisable both to the care giver and those who need care. Lack of care is as productive of subjectivities as care so that care needs simply may not be articulated. Finally, given these differences in what care means, caring can become risky. The paper concludes by suggesting that thinking through intersectionality as method allows us to focus on moments and events where care can become unsettled. Care ethics should learn not only from its successes but also from instances when care has failed. We need a feminist care ethics that responds to the distance and difference that race brings to care. That is the promise of good care.
Eleonore Kofman and Parvati Raghuram
Much existing work on global gender and migration has focused on care and its transfer across households. However, building on the revived interest in social reproduction in International Political Economy (IPE) in the last few years, particularly as it relates to gendered migrations, this chapter explores how the failure and/or inadequate conditions of social reproduction are not only an outcome but also a driver of global migrations among different categories of migrants, including labour, family, students, asylum seekers and refugees. The authors suggest that focusing on a range of sites (states, markets, community and household), sectors and skills beyond the household offers new insights into the relationship between production and reproduction across genders, and how these are being reconfigured in an increasingly heterogeneous Global North and South. The chapter also outlines how skills, class, race, nationality and legal status produce new forms of inequality and stratified rights.
Parvati Raghuram and Gunjan Sondhi
Highly skilled women form a large part of skilled migrant flows within, from and to Asia, although they have little place in the imaginaries of Asian gendered migration. This chapter focuses on the mutually constitutive relationship between gender and skilled migration. It first reviews the key feminist contributions to theorising skilled migration. Second, it outlines how gender, skills and migration play out in skilled migration regimes. Lastly, it sets out a future research agenda for gendered skilled migration research that is sensitive to the geographies in which gender analysis of skilled migrants is conducted, and the need to extend research beyond a heteronormative and patriarchal matrix.