Drawing on a gender-aware framework and institutional theory, this chapter explores the formal institutional factors (economic, anti-discrimination legislation and family policies) which affect women entrepreneurs in Latin America and the Caribbean countries. Using the 2014 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and Women, Business, and the Law data from IFC-World Bank from 14 Latin American countries, the results indicate that economic and institutional factors affect women’s entrepreneurial activity in the region. While economic and institutional factors affect men and women entrepreneurs, the nature of these structures creates some gender-based variations. Interestingly, they influence to a great extent the nature and magnitude of women’s entrepreneurial activity. Our results provide a deeper understanding of the role of formal institutional factors on women entrepreneurs in a developing region, such as Latin America and the Caribbean.
Daniela Giménez, Patricia Gabaldón and Cathrine Seierstad
Stefan Gröschl, Patricia Gabaldón and Laurent Bibard
Many future leaders around the world will be graduates from business schools. Considering the role and responsibilities of business schools in the recent economic and moral crisis, business educators have an obligation to unlearn and relearn the way they form and develop future leaders and members of society. For too long business educators have pushed students to think first and foremost just in economic terms such as profit maximization, cost efficiency, competition and optimization. The way business schools tend to propose a vision of sustainability is based on its consideration as a tool for profitability instead of responsibility. Business schools have often promoted the notion that achieving a result or objective is the ultimate goal, and that the process or means to achieve it become secondary. This collective mindset and our natural strive to group conformity make it very difficult for an individual to start questioning traditional models, roles, norms and processes and so to innovate. In this chapter we propose that business schools make a difference by introducing a more humanist perspective in the education of future leaders; a perspective that challenges and questions the many taken-for-granted epistemologies to which business schools typically introduce their students.
Eskil Sønju Le Bruyn Goldeng, Alessandra Rigolini and Patricia Gabaldon
In 2008, Norway was the first country to implement a regulation for gender balance on boards in public limited companies. Later several other countries have followed. In this chapter, we investigate the wider effects of the regulation in Norway, by inspecting other changes in the composition of board members in the period from 2006–2016. We mirror these changes by comparing the development in the public limited companies with other companies in Norway, and we find that the gender regulation led to more women on boards, but also to changes in age, nationalities, and multiple directorships among public limited companies. The institutional framework is argued to be important to understand the development and rate of these changes.