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Patricia H. Werhane

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Patricia H. Werhane

I begin with the assumption that notion(s) of leadership are socially constructed and thus can be reformulated to fit changing political and economic environments. I then argue that underlying the present global chaos (Brexit, Iran nuclear deal meltdown, other nuclear threats, trade embargos and so on) is a larger macro complex interacting framework into which we need to frame our models of leadership. I will suggest that unless we change our leadership models to fit the global 21st-century knowledge-framed economy, we will not be able to adequately face issues such as Brexit, immigration, nuclear issues, trade and so on. In this chapter, I will focus on the model Uhl-Bien and colleagues and Collier and Estaban propose. This model entails framing our thinking from an idea borrowed from complexity science: the notion of a complex adaptive system, or what I shall call a complex adaptive social system (CASS) or sets of embedded systems, since it is about humans and their organizations and how we interact.

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Patricia H. Werhane

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Marco Tavanti and Patricia H. Werhane

Focusing on corporate leadership, this paper will discuss four factors that often thwart nondiscriminatory ethical leadership: complacency, the ‘glass cliff’ effect, the role of power distance relationships, and globalization. Complacency, the most prevalent, is probably the most obvious factor. The concepts of the ‘glass cliff’ – how women in leadership positions are associated with a higher risk of failure (Ryan and Haslam 2007) – and ‘power distance’ – the way power is perceived and distributed (Hofstede et al. 2010) – both offer relevant perspectives to ethical leadership in the transforming environment of the twenty-first century. We will argue that three of these phenomena (and there are others) contribute to the perpetuation of gender inequality in leadership positions, and thus unfair distributions of power and influence that are not reflective of populations in the workplace nor in the community. It will turn out, however, that globalization actually can have a positive effect on improving gender distribution of leadership, so long as one recognizes what is needed to be an effective and ethical global leader.

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Patricia H. Werhane and David Bevan

Chapter 12 by Patricia H. Werhane and David Bevan takes up the critical view of present day ‘market capitalism’ – already expressed in several previous chapters. The authors rectify the widely held misinterpretation of Adam Smith’s understanding of free enterprise and demonstrate, with numerous examples, the expanding drive of alternative businesses in different parts of the world. This constructive trend from the bottom-up is articulated and exemplified also in several other chapters.

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Introduction: The Indian context

Breaking Boundaries

Regina Wentzel Wolfe and Patricia H. Werhane

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Regina Wentzel Wolfe and Patricia H. Werhane

Jeroo Billimoria is the founder of nine social ventures, including MelJol, Childline India, Child Helpline International, Aflatoun International and Child and Youth Finance International (CYFI). She is considered one of the world’s leading social entrepreneurs. She has been an Ashoka Fellow since 1998 and is a Schwab Fellow of the World Economic Forum. In 2006 she received a Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship. She serves on the boards of MelJol, Child Helpline International, Aflatoun International and CYFI. In January 2017 Ms. Billimoria stepped down as Managing Director of CYFI to take some time off for personal growth and development.

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Regina Wentzel Wolfe and Patricia H. Werhane

Astrid Lobo Gajiwala heads the Tata Memorial Hospital Tissue Bank, India’s first tissue bank, which she established in 1988. She was India’s Project Coordinator for Tissue Banking in an International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored regional tissue bank project, as well as the first woman President of the Asia Pacific Association of Tissue Banking. Dr. Gajiwala is a founding member of Satyashodhak a Mumbai-based feminist collective that since its inception in 1984 has contributed significantly to the empowerment of women in the Indian Roman Catholic Church. Recipient of two awards for journalism, she contributed to Catholic Women Speak: Bringing Our Gifts to the Table, an anthology distributed to the Roman Catholic bishops at the 2015 Synod on the Family, and to The Strength of Her Witness, edited by Elizabeth Johnson. She was invited by Voices of Faith as a panelist at a celebration of International Women’s Day in the Vatican. Currently, she is on the advisory bodies of a number of international religious reform groups as well as the Jesuit Conference of South Asia (JCSA) and the Jesuit Faculties’ Forum for South Asia (JFFSA). Dr. Gajiwala has a Ph.D. in medicine and postgraduate diplomas in tissue banking, bioethics and theology.

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Regina Wentzel Wolfe and Patricia H. Werhane

Corinne Kumar has dedicated her life to working for human rights and advocating alternate models of development. She founded the World Courts of Women in 1992 and continues as the coordinator. For more than 20 years she served as Secretary General of El Taller, an international NGO committed to working with civil society organizations to address issues of poverty, underdevelopment and women’s rights. Ms. Kumar was a founding member of the Centre for Informal Development Studies, of the Asian Women’s Human Rights Council and of Vimochana, an NGO in Bangalore, India concerned with domestic violence, dowry-related deaths and workplace sexual harassment. Editor of Asking We Walk: The South as a New Political Imaginary a four-volume set of essays, she has also published numerous journal articles. She is considered by many who know her to be a poet.

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Regina Wentzel Wolfe and Patricia H. Werhane

Dr. Sharma Sujata is the founder and Director of the Tapan Rehabilitation Society. Located in Karnal, India, it is a non-profit organization serving special needs children through a range of services and programs. Prior to that she had a short tenure as senior consultant in the psychiatry department of Metro Group Hospitals in New Delhi and was a project officer with UNICEF. Dr. Sujata holds a doctoral degree in psychology and a postgraduate degree in guidance and counseling.