Sergei Vinogradov and Patricia Wouters
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world with the second longest land border, shared with 16 other nations, which is either formed or traversed by numerous large and small rivers and lakes. The chapter examines the current status of these transboundary watercourses and political, economic and environmental issues that arise as a result of their use by the respective states. The focus of the analysis is on the relevant legal frameworks, regional, basin-wide or bilateral, and related institutions that govern utilization and conservation of transboundary water resources shared by Russia with its neighbours. Notwithstanding certain gaps and shortcomings of the existing regulatory regimes and institutions applicable to Russia’s transboundary waters, on the whole the existing legal frameworks are sufficiently effective in terms of their territorial coverage, normative content and practical implementation.