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Patrick Bond

The conditions for reproduction of daily life in Africa have not improved as a result of the frenetic expansion of global capitalism, given that this process, for the past third of a century, has: entailed structural adjustment austerity imposed by the Bretton Woods Institutions; been carried out by dictatorships or, at best, semi-democratic regimes; had the effect of deepening Resource Curses due to extractive industry exploitation; and amplified other political, economic and ecological injustices. The period of so-called ‘secular stagnation’ which the world entered into in 2007, but whose roots go back several decades, has exacerbated all these problems. As a result, contrary to ‘Africa Rising’ rhetoric, from late 2010 a new wave of protests arose across the continent. African uncivil society activists – those willing to express frustration in means other than what are often termed the ‘invited spaces’ of official participation – have been protesting at an increasing rate.

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Patrick Bond