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Maarten Prak, Marcel Hoogenboom and Patrick Wallis

The chapter analyses the formation of European citizenship from a historical perspective. Compared to the transition of citizenship rights from the local to the national level in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, EU citizenship can be characterised as a unique project. Never before in history was an attempt made to forge more than two dozen highly developed nation states into a new supranational entity. The formation of citizenship in Europe was a two-stage process. During the medieval and early modern periods, a robust form of urban citizenship developed. In 1789, that urban model of citizenship was overturned by the French Revolution, which introduced a national model of citizenship. At the beginning of the 21st century the further integration of EU Member States has already resulted in the transfer of some national citizenship rights (especially civil and economic rights) to a higher – European – level. From a historical perspective, the chapter asks what alternatives Europe’s own history can offer.