Existing public funding for biodiversity conservation is widely acknowledged to be inadequate to finance the actions required to meet the EU’s biodiversity conservation targets, contributing to the global targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity. Consequently, access to funding from other sectoral funding streams of the public domain, including through new and innovative means, is needed both in order to close the funding gap for biodiversity and to internalise the costs of conservation into sectoral activities that drive biodiversity loss. Environmental fiscal reform is considered to create several opportunities for complementing and mobilising resources for biodiversity funding. Environmental taxes, which either directly or indirectly support biodiversity, biodiversity-related environmental fees and charges (e.g. hunting charges and nature park entrance fees), and environmental tax relief mechanisms that reward certain biodiversity-friendly activities or behaviour are examples of fiscal instruments that can be used to mobilise more funding for biodiversity. Furthermore, redistributing tax revenue among government levels according to ecological criteria (i.e. ecological fiscal transfers) can also be used to support the delivery of conservation objectives. All of these instruments have so far not been widely explored in the EU and its Member States but have a potential to complement the existing policy mix for biodiversity finance. This chapter provides a review of these fiscal instruments, highlighting a number of successful examples, and explores their possible role within the context of the overall framework for biodiversity financing.
Exploring the policy mix for biodiversity financing: opportunities provided by environmental fiscal instruments in the EU
Carbon Taxes, Energy Subsidies and Smart Instrument Mixes
Andrea Illes, Marianne Kettunen, Patrick ten Brink, Rui Santos, Nils Droste and Irene Ring
Emma Watkins, Patrick ten Brink, Sirini Withana, Marianne Kettunen, Daniela Russi, Konar Mutafoglu, Jean-Pierre Schweitzer and Giulia Gitti
Patrick ten Brink, Leonardo Mazza, Tomáš Badura, Marianne Kettunen and Sirini Withana
Adapting to climate change and improving urban resilience: the role of nature and biodiversity protection in cities
Challenges and Opportunities
Konar Mutafoglu, Patrick ten Brink, Sabrina Dekker, Jamie Woollard and Jean-Pierre Schweitzer
Nature plays an important role in addressing the risks posed by climate change. In this chapter, the authors explore nature’s contribution to improving micro-climatic conditions in cities and mitigating urban heat stress, thereby helping cities become climate resilient. Green infrastructure, such as parks and tree-lined streets, can contribute to climate resilience and the health of urban populations by reducing heat stress, as well as hospitalisations and mortality. Today, with more than half of the global population urbanised, population densities and the heat island effect amplify heat-related risks in cities and necessitate appropriate solutions. The chapter presents a range of examples illustrating the benefits of nature, building mainly on insights from Europe. It also details how stakeholders collaborate to invest in urban and suburban green infrastructure and use a variety of tools, measures, processes and financing sources. The chapter then outlines a road map for moving forward.