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Frans Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

The most ancient term of constitution is the Greek word "________"_established on the basis of the constitutionalist experience of the ancient Greek peoples and representing a kind of constitutional concept of "Inter-sub-ject relationships"_Afterwards the terms for constitution evolved based on the clue of Ancient Greek thought. The Greek word "________" was Latinized by Cicero, who objectified the concept of constitution as rules of public affairs. Cicero also made two phrases of rei publicae status and rei publicae constitutio to express constitution, andset the word of status and the word of constitutio to substitute each other. Thomas Aquinas used ordinatio civi-tatis, ordo civitatis and regimen to explain Arislotle's concept of constitution, and reduced its meaning of "inter-subject relationships" to "class relationships"_After the nation-state period, the words for constitution in many national languages emerged_such as lois fondamentales, loi politique, constitution, Verfassung, etc. They reflect the political reality of territory-nation state, which is different from the political reality of city-state reflected by ancient constitutions. As there_many words for express constitution in history, it is ex parte to only focus on the word "constitution" in researching the history of terminology of constitution in western languages.

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Patrick ten Brink and Sirini Withana

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

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Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

In this chapter we focus on subsidies in three closely related areas: agriculture, food and water. Given the resource and pollution intensity of many activities in the food chain and the water cycle, the potential environmental impact of such subsidies is high. The actual impact, however, depends on the specific design and conditions of each support scheme. Direct agricultural subsidies, such as those under the EU Common Agricultural Policy, have undergone major changes that may make them less environmentally harmful, but there remains room for further 'greening'. There are many other, often less visible subsidies that could be reform candidates, especially those that do not (anymore) serve their original objective, or do so in an inefficient way.

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Paying the Polluter

Environmentally Harmful Subsidies and their Reform

Edited by Frans H. Oosterhuis and Patrick ten Brink

Pledges to reform environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS) have increased over the past few years, at both global and national levels. Paying the Polluter addresses the most important issues to be considered when embarking upon these necessary reforms.
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Sirini Withana, Patrick ten Brink, Leonardo Mazza and Daniela Russi

A broad definition of environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS) encompasses 'hidden' or implicit subsidies that result from a lack of full cost pricing for the provision of goods and services, lack of resource pricing and non-internalization of externalities. These subsidies can arise due to explicit decisions such as choosing a policy of only partial cost recovery. They can also be due to a lack of actions such as the regulation or taxation of pollution to internalize externalities or putting in place charges that would reflect resource values. Although such a broad definition can lead to difficulties in measuring the scale of subsidies involved, it is important to recognize that such perverse incentives exist and can be quite significant in several sectors. Some may opt to recognize these as subsidies, while others prefer to use the term de facto or implicit subsidies or even refer to them as incentives. This chapter will examine cases of implicit subsidies due to the lack of full cost pricing, including for water, sub-soil assets and fisheries resources, as well as implicit subsidies arising from the non-internalization of externalities. It will provide an overview of these issues and provide examples of their consequences in terms of pollution and overuse of scarce resources in different countries. In addition, it will examine experiences in identifying and addressing such implicit environmentally harmful subsidies that can serve as examples to others considering reform.