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Paul F. Diehl

As peace operations have been increasingly grafted onto a series of problems, it is perhaps not surprising that peacekeepers might now be asked to deal with climate change as well. This chapter reviews some of the roles that peace operations might play in addressing climate change, as well as the limitations therein. In mainstreaming climate change concerns in peace operations there are several specific responses that might be made, reflecting both ‘mitigation’ and ‘adaptation’ strategies; in each case, however, the responses are likely confined to the middle range of responses. Specifically, early warning and preventive deployment actions in peace operations represent a proactive adaptation of existing peacekeeping strategies. Similarly, post-conflict peacebuilding strategies that incorporate climate change concerns also adapt current approaches, albeit in a way that represents less of a departure from the status quo. Nevertheless, such strategies also involve some long-term changes in the host country that might promote a mitigation of environmental degradation through the assumption of sustainable programs. Finally, ‘green’ peacekeeping involves less about changes in the macro-strategies of peace operations and more about how the conduct of the peacekeeping operation itself can limit its environmental footprint.

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J. Michael Greig, Andrew P. Owsiak and Paul F. Diehl

Third parties employ myriad conflict management strategies when intervening in an interstate crisis. Of these, disputants turn frequently to mediation, which allows them to retain control over the process and outcome of their dispute while also receiving third-party assistance. Mediation, however, does not occur in isolation. Most interstate conflicts experience multiple conflict management attempts, many of which are not mediation. Mindful of this, the authors review the most prominent alternatives to mediation, including legal approaches (arbitration and adjudication), sanctions, and peacekeeping. For each strategy, they sketch its defining characteristics, compare and contrast these to mediation (as a baseline), and then explore an understudied, yet critical, aspect: the compatibility and sequencing of conflict management strategies. In particular, they explore how each strategy fits with the logic of mediation, and demonstrate how some combinations and sequences of strategies may enhance conflict management, while others undermine it.