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Paul Martin

This chapter takes a systems approach to understanding the degree to which rural sustainability might be achievable under conditions of climate change. It considers the problem of legal effectiveness from a strategic perspective, considering first the interconnectivity of fundamental biophysical systems, and then links these to socio-economic dynamics to provide a rich understanding of the likely effects of climate change on rural areas and on governance itself. The chapter highlights the extent to which the nature of environmental problems will continue to depart from the ones that are well understood, to different self-generating and very complex types, for which innovative governance approaches are essential. Key Words: governance systems, complexity, rural communities, agriculture

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Paul Martin

Abstract Much attention is paid to creating and interpreting instruments that ostensibly create human and environmental rights, but there is an implementation gap between the aspirations embedded in these and their outcome. The implementation gap is made up of transactions and resources needed for effectiveness, and the effect of many possible ‘frictions’ taken together pose a significant risk to any strategy, creating the necessity of tackling the detailed implementation challenge head on. This is a lesson that should be taken to heart by those proposing stronger human rights in nature. Effective implementation depends on many actions by government and civil society, including by those who are meant to be governed or to benefit. Whether these many things occur is largely determined by contexts, capabilities, motivations and relationships. The reliability of an implementation chain is limited by its weakest links. It is the details that determine what actually happens, and whether better outcomes are won, or not. Implementation deserves far more attention than it gets.
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Paul Belleflamme and Martin Peitz

In many markets, user benefits depend on participation and usage decisions of other users, giving rise to network effects. Intermediaries manage these network effects and thus act as platforms that bring users together. This chapter reviews key findings from the literature on network effects and two-sided platforms. It lays out the basic models of monopoly platforms and platform competition, and elaborates on some routes taken by recent research.

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Edited by Paul Martin and Amanda Kennedy