This chapter takes a systems approach to understanding the degree to which rural sustainability might be achievable under conditions of climate change. It considers the problem of legal effectiveness from a strategic perspective, considering first the interconnectivity of fundamental biophysical systems, and then links these to socio-economic dynamics to provide a rich understanding of the likely effects of climate change on rural areas and on governance itself. The chapter highlights the extent to which the nature of environmental problems will continue to depart from the ones that are well understood, to different self-generating and very complex types, for which innovative governance approaches are essential. Key Words: governance systems, complexity, rural communities, agriculture
Paul Vandoren and Pedro Velasco Martins
Paul Belleflamme and Martin Peitz
In many markets, user benefits depend on participation and usage decisions of other users, giving rise to network effects. Intermediaries manage these network effects and thus act as platforms that bring users together. This chapter reviews key findings from the literature on network effects and two-sided platforms. It lays out the basic models of monopoly platforms and platform competition, and elaborates on some routes taken by recent research.