This chapter proposes that illuminating general insights into the history of tort remedies from the end of the nineteenth century to the present day can be obtained by paying attention to three interrelated and overarching themes. The first is the role of history in shaping, constraining, defining and - occasionally - suppressing modern developments in tort remedies. The second is the extraordinary significance of legal categories at multiple levels, ranging from the distinctions between different heads of damages to the distinctions between different torts and, ultimately, between tort and non-tort. These categories, the chapter emphasises, are not mere convenient repositories for organising information, they have invited and encouraged distinctive patterns of legal development. The third theme is the unresolved and ongoing conflict between tort law’s formal aspiration to rationalism and the instinctive attractions of certain kinds of irrationalism.
Bruce Mitchell and Paul Parker
A reliable energy supply is essential for economic development, although its underlying value is often redefined over time. Distinctive dimensions of energy can be identified, such as fossil fuels characterized by finite supplies and uneven spatial distribution, and renewable energies (solar energy, wind energy, biofuels, geothermal energy, tidal power and so on) by natural cycles. The chapter reviews traditional approaches to energy (e.g. supply and demand side), with their respective foci on endowment and local industry, and on market scale and impacts. In addition the attributes that energy shares with other natural resources are considered, as well as their pertinence to energy geography regarding visioning (probable and desired futures, inventories and scenarios, sustainability and resilience), an ecosystem or holistic approach (including the energy-water-food nexus), governance (at different spatial scales), adaptive management and co-management (especially regarding relationships with Indigenous peoples), stakeholder engagement and partnerships (private, public, non-governmental organizations) and assessments (environmental, cumulative, strategic).