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Paul Robson, Tyler Chamberlin and Mark Freel

This chapter is concerned with understanding those human capital factors which predict higher or lower levels of start-up financing. The government agencies and authorities devote substantial amounts of resources to promoting and assisting start-up businesses in the United Kingdom (UK), and beyond. To the extent that undercapitalisation associates with poorer survival prospects, appreciating the non-financial factors influencing capitalisation ought to better inform interventions. The data used are from a large-scale survey of UK small and medoium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The results show that financial qualifications or training, habitual entrepreneurs and exporting firms all have higher amounts of start-up finance. The results also show that female-led businesses have lower start-up finance compared to male-led businesses. Taken together, the results suggest that policy-makers should be focused on developing human capital, or entrepreneurial characteristics, rather than attempting to push more money into markets.

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Ghadah Alarifi, Paul Robson and Endrit Kromidha

This chapter focuses attention upon the emerging debates, research agenda and opportunities for social entrepreneurship (SE) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The MENA region is under-researched with too much research being based on secondary data rather than utilising primary data. The catalyst for more research needing to be done to understand SE in the MENA region is the Arab Spring. The majority of existing research in the MENA region has been greatly influenced by cultural and religious antecedents, especially Islam and Arabian culture. There are intriguing challenges to link the aforementioned tradition with theories of SE.