This chapter explores comparative and international human resource management (HRM) traditions associated with psychological contract research. Emphasis is placed on comparing a micro-individual level approach to understanding psychological contracts with a macro-national level approach, making a strong case for cultural embeddedness.
Paul Sparrow and Cary L. Cooper
The chapter summarises recent changes in the HR function. HR directors have developed strategic insight into their organisation, focusing their function on the need to look “into” the organisation, and its strategy, and help ensure the effective execution of change, as part of a team of other senior leaders. As such, they have had to evidence the contribution that people management can have to business challenges such as innovation, productivity, lean management, customer centricity, and the globalisation of operations and organisation capabilities. They have learned to understand the complexity of their organisation’s business models and the different options that exist in terms of organisation design. It notes two over-riding debates or narratives that have come to activity: the notion of talent management; forging a clear link, and line of sight, from the strategy and the changes in business model this often entails, and the engagement of the workforce. The chapter signals the re-emergence of a range of societal debates. It organises the future HRM research agenda into four topics: the role of HR strategy, structure and architecture; the role of key HR processes; key performance enablers and key performance outcomes.
Paul Sparrow and Lilian Otaye-Ebede
The chapter addresses the challenges for the field of HRM created by the drive for productivity, arguing productivity may be thought of as one form of organisational resilience. It argues the HR function thinks about productivity in relatively narrow terms – looking to individual-level productivity activities such as building workforce skills, managing employee engagement to keep skilled employees delivering, and designing performance management systems and incentives systems such as performance-related pay to maintain control over the implementation of work. It outlines two challenges: developments in national, and organisational level productivity. It explains the main factors involved in organisation level productivity, and identifies three contextual factors that HRM research will have to take into account: the role of time in the HRM–productivity challenge; the relationship between productivity, HRM, and risk; and the importance of understanding the most appropriate level of analysis question in examining the relationship between HRM and productivity. It discusses the use of human capital metrics and HR analytics in this context.
Edited by Paul Sparrow and Cary L. Cooper
Paul Sparrow and Shashi Balain
Chris Brewster, Wolfgang Mayrhofer and Paul Sparrow
This chapter examines the ways in which Western Europe is different from other regions in the world identifying particularly differences in approaches to stakeholders, the role of government and employee involvement as crucial. The authors discuss differences within Europe and the various cultural and institutional clusters that have been proposed. The chapter sets this within developments in globalisation but notes that the economic crisis that began in 2008, and the UK’s Brexit vote and the election of Donald Trump in the USA, have all raised questions about the ‘inevitability’ of globalisation. The authors conclude that human resource management (HRM) in Europe is likely to remain different from that in the other parts of the world, and the regions within Europe are unlikely to become more standardised in their approach to HRM.