Easy access to public transportation facilities is a critical issue for elderly people, since the elderly rely on public transportation and are one of the more mobility-constrained groups. Yet, the specific factors affecting the accessibility of elderly people to public transportation, such as the slope of streets and the speed at which they walk, are rarely considered in accessibility analysis. The objective of this chapter is to investigate the influence of these factors on the access to public transportation using a geographic information system (GIS). It was concluded that the consideration of the streets’ slopes and the speed at which elderly people walk provides better estimates of the accessibility to bus stops. As a result, transportation-related social exclusion can be measured more precisely, and spatial inequalities are likely to be better understood.
Vitor Ribeiro, Paula Remoaldo and Javier Gutiérrez
Paula Remoaldo, Olga Matos, Isabel Freitas, Hélder da Silva Lopes, Vítor Ribeiro, Ricardo Gôja and Miguel Pereira
A consensus has not yet been reached worldwide regarding the concept of creative tourism. Since 2000, it has been considered as a kind of tourism that can offer tourists the opportunity to co-create and develop their creative potential. Internationally, networks and platforms have been developed to profile and promote this kind of tourism but these organizations have not been systematically examined. In 2017, an investigation was carried out to identify and analyze existing practices, primarily using qualitative methods and focusing on content analysis. Research was conducted using Google (to locate websites) and a database with 20 analysis topics was created. An in-depth analysis was made of the platforms and networks in creative tourism that are being developed worldwide, and the initiatives undertaken by each institution. The main results show that not all initiatives referred to as ‘creative experiences’ have identifiable creative content or focus, or can be considered to have something to do with co-creation. Some of the institutions have more learning experiences than creative ones. Most of them can be found in southern Europe and the existing ones may still be diversified in the future.