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Pauli Kettunen

Pauli Kettunen challenges the conventional images of the Nordic model. Applying an approach which is sensitive to historical and political concepts and language, the chapter argues that a particular notion of social citizenship developed in the Nordic countries in which interests rather than rights were put at the centre. This notion of social citizenship is associated with two intertwined ideas which are important in the development of the Nordic pattern of social reform: the idea of symmetry between workers and employers and the idea of a virtuous circle between divergent interests. With these ideas, democracy and citizenship were combined with paid work and conflicting interests. This combination has been questioned by the projects for competitive national (and European) communities, responding to globalised and financialised capitalism. The vigorous comparisons of ‘models’ and the popularity of the concept of ‘the Nordic model’ can be seen as an aspect of this current transformation.

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Pauli Kettunen

In the Nordic countries, the concept of society has had specific meanings that caused it to play a special role in the process retrospectively conceptualized as the building of the welfare state. Reflecting peripheral experiences of transnational interdependency and historical development, the Nordic political languages confused ‘state’ and ‘society’. The notion of the state as a society preceded the formation of the welfare state and contributed to legitimacy for state interventions. The popularity of the welfare state concept increased after the end of welfare state expansion in Western Europe. At the same time, the concept of the welfare society took on a new kind of use in critiques of the welfare state. However, in the Nordic countries any attempt to create a political alternative by contrasting the concepts of state and society has faced heavy constraints imposed by linguistic conventions. ‘Welfare society’ has proved to be an ineffective tool for criticizing the Nordic welfare states.

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Edited by Pauli Kettunen and Klaus Petersen

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Pauli Kettunen and Klaus Petersen

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Beyond Welfare State Models

Transnational Historical Perspectives on Social Policy

Edited by Pauli Kettunen and Klaus Petersen

Welfare state models have for decades been the gold standard of welfare state research. Beyond Welfare State Models escapes the straitjacket of conventional welfare state models and challenges the existing literature in two ways. Firstly the contributors argue that the standard typologies have omitted important aspects of welfare state development. Secondly, the work develops and underlines the importance of a more fluid transnational conceptualisation. As this book shows, welfare states are not created in national isolation but are heavily influenced by transnational economic, political and cultural interdependencies. The authors illustrate these important points of criticism with their studies on the transnational history of social policy, religion and the welfare state, Nordic cooperation within the fields of social policy and marriage law, and the transnational contexts of national family policies.
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Edited by Pauli Kettunen, Sonya Michel and Klaus Petersen

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Edited by Pauli Kettunen, Sonya Michel and Klaus Petersen

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Pauli Kettunen, Sonya Michel and Klaus Petersen

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Race, Ethnicity and Welfare States

An American Dilemma?

Edited by Pauli Kettunen, Sonya Michel and Klaus Petersen

In this interdisciplinary volume, leading and emerging scholars examine the relationship between homogeneity and welfare state development. They trace Gunnar Myrdal’s influence on thinking about race in the US and explore current European states’ approaches to the strangers in their midst, and what social citizenship looks like from a global perspective.