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Edited by Peggy E. Chaudhry

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Edited by Peggy E. Chaudhry

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Peggy E. Chaudhry

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Peggy E. Chaudhry

In this chapter, the primary focus will be to 1) illustrate the incidence of counterfeit trade by way of seizure data from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (Customs and Border Protection); 2) highlight the leading agencies designed to protect the intellectual property environment, such as Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE); 3) discuss a few agencies that rely on the joint efforts of several of the U.S.-government-led organizations (such as the “StopFakes”) and the private sector (such as, “Looks too good to be true”). The author acknowledges that this chapter is simply a narrative of these agencies, but, providing a roadmap of the distinct governing bodies will prove to be valuable for a variety of stakeholders, especially the novice manager that may get lost in the labyrinth of agencies that may be able to assist with safeguarding the intellectual property of the firm.

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Peggy E. Chaudhry

In this chapter, the discussion centers around the size and growth of illegitimate pharmaceuticals; the porous supply chain in both physical and virtual markets, which allows illicit traders to penetrate (or circumvent) the licit trade of pharmaceuticals; a succinct clarification of both formal organized crime groups and informal illicit traders fueling the supply; the evolution of agencies designed to govern and enforce this type of criminal activity; and an array of anti-counterfeiting tactics designed to curb this major problem.

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Peggy E. Chaudhry

The deep web hosts darknet marketplaces that sell a variety of wares, such as narcotics and weapons, and is testimony to the growth of illicit trade on the internet. The challenge of websites that host digital content piracy is exacerbated through linkages to a variety of malware schemes that have created a lucrative crimeware economy. Digital thieves are luring unsuspecting consumers as digital bait to derive profits from a variety of malware schemes, such as ransomware and malvertising. The hijacking of computers to gain access to their digital content so that it can then be ransomed back to consumers or organizations is considered to be one of the leading threats of internet crime. Malvertising schemes are plaguing the interactive advertising business—criminals are reaping profits by posting legitimate advertisements at content theft sites or using an army of botnets to fake advertising traffic. A variety of stratagems are evolving to curb this illicit trade by way of fostering multi-lateral enforcement tactics; updating legislation to circumvent this type of crime on the internet; training digital savvy citizens; and creating private-sector remedies.

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Edited by Peggy E. Chaudhry

This unique Handbook provides multiple perspectives on the growth of illicit trade, primarily exploring counterfeits and internet piracy. It includes expert opinion on a wide range of topics including the evaluation of key global enforcement issues, government and private-sector agency initiatives to stifle illicit trade, and the evolution of piracy on the internet. The authors also assess the efficacy of anti-counterfeiting strategies such as targeted consumer campaigns, working with intermediaries in the supply chain, authentication technology, and online brand protection.
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Peggy E. Chaudhry and Alan S. Zimmerman

This chapter focuses on the illicit trade in tobacco products and particularly key elements of this illicit trade that include 1) the scale of the global illicit tobacco trade and its nature (notably, the distinction that can be drawn between source and destination markets); 2) the various types of illicit tobacco products; and 3) the nature and characteristics of the illicit tobacco trade. A discussion of the recognized sources and destinations of illicit tobacco trade; the criminal gangs behind illicit tobacco trade; the use of packaging as a deterrent to counterfeiters; the role of tax stamps; and the use of Internet sites for distribution is provided. We also present the principal factors contributing to illicit trade in tobacco; specifically: 1) consumer affordability of tobacco products; 2) the profit incentives available to illicit traders; 3) the fact that criminal penalties are low and disproportionate to profit incentives; 4) consumer complicity; 5) the significance of the location of certain countries; and 6) tobacco as the “ideal smuggled product”. Although many of these issues are worthy of individual reports in their own right, analysis at that level of detail is beyond the scope of this chapter.