This chapter examines the complex and heterogeneous nature of the energy security challenges faced by the 28 EU Member States. It considers whether collective action at an EU level to increase the deployment of renewable energy may be a solution to these challenges. The chapter critically analyses the current state of European energy security and the history of EU interventions into the renewable energy sector. It then examines whether the recent changes to European energy law and policy are likely to solve the EU’s energy security concerns by facilitating accelerated deployment of renewable energy. It concludes that given the complex economic and political circumstances in which the European Union currently finds itself, unless there are binding national targets and clear guidelines for implementing the 2030 target of 27 per cent renewable energy, it may be difficult to motivate all Member States to engage in collective action to accelerate their uptake of renewable energy. This could have serious implications for the energy security of the European Union, with levels of import dependency predicted to rise by 2030.