Large-scale rail transits have been constructed in China. Many cities have also extended their rail transit networks extensively to suburban areas where car dependency is relatively high. To understand the impact of rail transit proximity on commuting greenhouse gas emissions in suburban areas, surveys of two sites in Shanghai were conducted in 2010 and 2011 respectively. CO2 emissions were calculated based on the mode used in each segment of commuting and distance travelled. The relationship between commuting CO2 emissions and demographic characteristics, transit proximity, built environment as well as car ownership was also established. The availability of rail transit has an impact on people’s mode choice in commuting. But there is also the case that CO2 emissions from people living in areas close to rail transit surpass the emissions from people residing far away. More specific policies are worth of exploring to reduce those people’s commuting emissions.
T.K. Peng and Tsai-Wei Wang
Shin-yi Peng, Han-Wei Liu and Ching-Fu Lin
This chapter will explore the interplay between law and technology, focusing on the pertinent trade issues within megaregionals. As globalization has created markets that cross borders, there is an increasing reliance on diverse types of international legal instruments to govern science and technology. The reality is that the differences in regulatory regimes become more significant as trade obstacles. Manufacturers or service suppliers often confront challenges when attempting to comply with diverse national regulatory measures. At the forefront, the questions to ask are whether the emergence of various bilateral or megaregionals help promote regulatory cooperation/coherence? Or, has such phenomenon raised more questions than it has answered in terms of regulatory divergence? What mechanisms do the multilateral, plurilateral, or bilateral economic integration arrangements design to reduce regulatory divergence? We will engage in a critical review on pertinent law-making and jurisprudence to offer a systematic examination on regulatory convergence of technology law.