Tuija Mainela, Vesa Puhakka and Per Servais
Twenty years ago Oviatt and McDougall suggested an international new venture (INV) to be a specific type of organization that is international from or near inception. The international entrepreneurship (IE) field has been widened to cover studies of entrepreneurial behavior on opportunities in other types of organizations, such as multinational corporations, micro-multinationals and re-internationalizing SMEs. The widening scope of organizational structures under study in the IE field, together with emergence of a variety of new ways of governing economic activities in present day business, opens up a question of the possible ways of organizing the opportunities in IE. In this study we aim to advance IE research that examines international entrepreneurial behaviors focused on international opportunities within various organizational settings and to question the taken-for-granted assumptions of organizing IE. The research question of this study is, how does the research in IE field uncover the varying forms of organizing international opportunities? In the search for an answer to this question, we review the forms of organizing in a set of IE articles published between 1989 and 2012. We find that, although IE research has extended its scope to cover a wider variety of firms and their sub-units, it is still limited in its acknowledgement and understanding of the more flexible organizing forms, such as network organization and various types of virtual and latent ways of organizing economic activities. Building on these observations, we articulate future research directions for study of the hybrid ways of organizing international opportunities in current global markets.
Erik S. Rasmussen, Martin Hannibal, René Lydiksen and Per Servais
Mohammad B. Rana, Matthew M.C Allen and Per Servais
Current research highlights the internationalization of firms in downstream value chains, such as marketing and sales; however, studies have overlooked supplier internationalization into up-stream value chains. Drawing on internationalization and GVC perspectives, we examine the critical case of DBL Apparel Company from Bangladesh, which supplies many global brands, including Sweden’s H & M, and has internationalized into Ethiopia. As the company appears to be the first Bangladeshi garment firm to have internationalized, we conduct an in-depth examination over a three-year period of the process and the antecedents affecting the firm’s overseas expansion. We explore how the buyer’s business model, institutional features, and the supplier’s entrepreneurial capability influence DBL’s internationalization. In particular, our study demonstrates how the buyer’s market-driving approach, value creation, delivery, and proposition shape how the buyer shows commitment to the supplier’s internationalization. At the same time, the supplier’s entrepreneurial capability, consisting of visionary leadership, commitment, learning intent, absorptive capacity, and dynamic management skills contribute to its decision to internationalize. Our analysis reveals that a supplier firm does not move toward internationalization based on one-sided commitment only; instead, it is the ‘shared commitment’ of both buyer and supplier in the GVC that contributes to the supplier’s decision to internationalize. We also demonstrate the influence of institutional characteristics in both home and host countries, particularly the role of government and the logics of doing business that facilitate the internationalization decision and process. Our study contributes to internationalization business and GVC literatures.