Governance includes a plethora of actors, and it is often assumed that these actors aim to realize common objectives through collaboration, and sometimes even through a deliberative exchange of reasons. Although this makes deliberation a key concept in governance theories, conditions for deliberative governance and its mechanisms are seldom elaborated on in the governance literature. This chapter describes recent developments in empirically oriented deliberative theory and research. The current controversies in the field, including discussion on the understanding of reason-giving in different contexts and whether citizens can and are willing to deliberate, are disentangled. Tensions between deliberation and deliberative democracy are highlighted. The aim of the chapter is to contribute to a better understanding of how current research on deliberation can be integrated into theories of governance.