Chapter 14 by Peter John Opio introduces a widely ignored but hugely important new perspective on business and the economy as we normally understand them. Its contribution is based on groundbreaking experiences in African countries and shows that innovation can – and frequently does – happen in informal firms and economies (arising, again, from the bottom-up). This innovation is vital for the survival of the poor. As with other innovations, however, it merits ethical scrutiny and examination. At the same time, these models can inspire businesses in the formal economies to become more creative, which has been demonstrated by the outstanding examples of the Nigerian Nollywood film industry and the cellphone-based M-Pesa banking from Kenya.