Peter M. Jones
Historically, the fate of the urban arterial has been closely linked with the urban transport and land use policy priorities set by a city at that point in time. The chapter identifies three policy perspectives (the car-oriented city, the sustainable mobility city, and the city of places), each of which places different demands and assigns different priorities to space/capacity allocation along the arterial route. The role assigned to the street is captured through the way in which the arterial is described - as a ‘road’ for motorised traffic, or a ‘street’ that accommodates all transport modes (including public transport, walking and cycling) and equally provides for the ‘place’ functions of the street (e.g. street activities, parking and loading, and frequent pedestrian crossing facilities); street classification has a strong influence on the detailed design of the arterial street. The chapter concludes by outlining some of the future pressures that the arterial street will face.
Peter Jones, Daphne Comfort and David Hillier
Fracking, the exploitation of shale gas reserves, has become one of the most contentious energy-related issues in the world. New technologies have made once-unprofitable fields open to exploitation. This chapter examines fracking in the UK, a case study that illuminates the technology and politics of the procedure in many places. It situates British fracking within changing manifolds of global energy supply and demand as well as wider debates about energy security. It also explains the technical dimensions en route to understanding why many regions have adopted fracking. In the British context, it focuses on potential shale gas reserves. The environmental risks are explored at length, from local footprints to climate change. It also discusses fracking’s poor reputation and why so many people are fearful of it, which has resulted in heated opposition. Such controversial processes invite government regulation and planning, which are also summarized.
Nasma Hannawi, Peter Jones and Helena Titheridge
The Gulf States have undergone very rapid economic and population growth, which has been accompanied by major urban development and transportation system expansion. The dispersed urban fabric and largely highway-based transport system have resulted in car-dependent travel behaviour, along with its various negative consequences. To encourage more sustainable travel behaviour, several cities in the region have planned or already implemented transit systems, supported by the concept of transit oriented development (TOD). This chapter examines how cities in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region became automobile-dependent, and how recent distinctive initiatives taken by the Government of Dubai have helped the city to reorient its growth with the aim of becoming more sustainable, liveable and economically competitive, by integrating its land use and transit systems. As part of the study, the shifting attitudes and behaviour of developers in response to the planning and opening of the transit system are documented. The implications for TOD as a tool to encourage more sustainable travel behavior in GCC countries are discussed.