Understanding how cities are shaped by transport priorities through urban fabric theory creates a new and more sustainable approach to the planning and assessment process in transport and town planning. Four tools are developed in this chapter from the theory: (1) a strategic framework that includes the kind of urban fabric within which any project is located; (2) benefit-cost ratios that incorporate wider economic benefits, especially agglomeration economies in each fabric; (3) avoidable costs which assess lost opportunities from the kind of urban development facilitated by the infrastructure chosen; and (4) value capture and value creation opportunities that can help finance the infrastructure if they are used to create walking and transit urban fabric.
Peter Boettke and Patrick Newman
Our contention is that the real opponents of Keynes are the Austrians, who belong to the school of thought that best champions the theory of a self-correcting market economy. The countercyclical policies embraced by Keynesians as well as the Chicago School Monetarists are generally seen as counterproductive. In particular, this chapterprovides critiques of the liquidity trap theory from an Austrian perspective. It is argued that if prices are allowed to freely fall and are not propped up by government intervention, the liquidity trap roadblock poses no genuine threat for the free market economy. Only when prices are rigid and government intervention is pervasive does the phenomenon of a “liquidity trap” and hoarding money result in a stagnant economy.
Colin Ashton-Graham and Peter Newman
Yuan Gao and Peter Newman
Automobile dependence was a deliberate policy of many developed cities in the modernist period since the 1940s. As cities are now overcoming automobile dependence the attention has turned to the emerging world, especially China. The chapter shows that the two most influential Chinese cities, Beijing and Shanghai, have reached ‘peak car’ and have low automobile dependence. The chapter suggests that although China is in a period of rapid urbanization and motorization, these two cities are not automobile dependent and are unlikely to succumb to automobile dependence. This phenomenon can be explained by economic, cultural and administrative factors, especially Chinese traditional dense urbanism, which involves mostly walking and transit urban fabrics.
Peter Newman and Andy Thornley
Peter S. Hofman, Alexander Newman and Ziliang Deng
Zachary D. Miller, William L. Rice, B. Derrick Taff and Peter Newman
Providing opportunities for visitor experiences is one of the core responsibilities of the sustainable tourism industry. However, understanding and managing the visitor experience is no easy task. These experiences arise from complex social-ecological conditions and are, broadly stated, co-created by both managers of and visitors to parks and conservation areas. In this chapter, we provide guidance for managers of sustainable tourism related to the management of visitor experiences using science-based practices. First, we define what the visitor experience is and discuss why managers of sustainable tourism should care about providing quality visitor experiences. Next, we describe core concepts that have framed the topic, including recreation experience preferences and outcomes-based management. Third, we detail the use of Management By Objectives frameworks for managing visitor experiences. Lastly, we discuss a variety of research gaps and provide suggestions for improving visitor use management and visitor experiences in an increasingly complex and uncertain future.