The chapter looks at stress and well-being in the UK public sector and in particular the medical profession. An organizational and systemic approach is taken, focusing particularly on how the working environment contributes to challenges for the individual. In the first section on stress, an account is given of how societal changes have added to the interpersonal demands of the medical practitioner. An organizational perspective on stress is described using the Organizational Stress Measure. Subsequent sections concentrate on how the emerging drive towards greater medical leadership and medical engagement contribute to increased role conflict and role ambiguity.