This chapter assesses BRT development in Britain, in which about 12 substantial schemes were in operation by June 2017. These include both guided and unguided busways, all of which are integrated with the local road networks to offer through services. Bus operation as such is generally commercial, with capital investment provided largely by public authorities. Given extensive rail systems in Britain, densities of traffic are relatively low. Encouraging ridership figures and diversion from cars are reported for several schemes. Economic appraisal prior to construction enables anticipated benefit-cost ratios to be identified, and in two cases ex-post ratios may also be calculated from observed data, which are higher than the forecast case. Detailed assessment is provided of the Fastway and South Hampshire cases, and of modal diversion and energy savings arising from the Cambridgeshire case. A tabular outline is also provided of the principal characteristics of other schemes.
Gerard Whelan and Peter White
Peter B. White, David E. Cunningham and Kyle Beardsley
There is a great deal of scholarship on the UN’s response to violent crises, but less is known about the UN’s ability to prevent violence from erupting in the first place. Does the UN respond to potential intrastate crises to prevent civil war and are these efforts successful? In this chapter, the authors argue that the answer to both of these questions is yes. In addition to outlining the history of and scholarship on UN preventative action, they discuss statistical analyses of self-determination disputes in which they find that the UN does act to prevent potential crises from becoming violent. They find that the UN is motivated to act primarily by a dispute’s history of violence and potential regional contagion. They have found also that these efforts are generally successful in preventing non-violent disputes from becoming violent. In both analyses, diplomatic action, such as mediation, is a central activity.