Peter Burdon and Claire Williams
This chapter provides a critical analysis of recent developments granting nature legal rights. After surveying examples it engages with the philosophical and political objections to implementing rights of nature legislation. The critical question guiding this analysis is whether attempts to safeguard the environment through the existence of legal rights advance ecological goals in a sustained and transformative way.
Peter W.B. Phillips, Sidi Zhang, Tara Williams and Laural DeBusschere
Jamie Murphy, Nadzeya Kalbaska, Lorenzo Cantoni, Laurel Horton-Tognazzini, Peter Ryan and Alan Williams
Empowering and commoditizing, with predicted educational outcomes ranging from a utopian to a dystopian future, the media and academia are making sweeping generalizations about Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Such hyperbole about innovations is common, and often misguided. Historically, online learning pedagogy began with cognitive-behaviorist approaches followed by social learning, connectivism and community learning. The chapter’s discussion of MOOC pedagogy, success measures, types and categorizations and an online learning continuum should prove useful for educators and administrators considering MOOC initiatives or research. This chapter helps ground the hyperbole, reviewing MOOCs as the latest _ not the last _ in a long line of distance learning innovations, and positioning MOOCs as one of four proposed categories of online learning. The study has a strong educational focus, exemplified by differences between the two main MOOC pedagogies, extended (xMOOC) and connectivist (cMOOC), and MOOCs’ abysmal completion rates. Educators, administrators and industry should also benefit from discussion of a major MOOC unknown: viable business models. Although there are no proven or definitive models, MOOCs offer exciting opportunities to explore new and innovative education delivery. The chapter does, however, suggest a few strategies for implementing MOOCs and ways to measure MOOC success. Due in part to the newness of MOOCs and the small discipline size, the few existing hospitality and tourism examples is a limitation of this chapter. Regardless, the universality of distance learning and MOOCs extends to hospitality and tourism.