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Peter D.A. Wood

In this chapter, I analyze urban settlements located along national borders and borderlands as unique and informative sites of urbanism. The study of cities has recently taken a turn to provide alternative theorizations that shy away from overgeneralized models and normativity of the globally Northern city (Sheppard, Leitner and Maringanti, 2013). To contribute to this ongoing work, I first compare the role of border cities between the Global North and South, as well as challenges to this binary categorization of urban zones. Recent research on borders tends to focus on how political boundaries are as much re-territorializations as they are empirical subjects of study (Paasi, 2012). While various world regions receive attention in this research (Jones, 2009; Konrad and Nicol, 2011; Ladysz, 2006; Paasi, 1999), a more generalized assessment of borders as explicitly urban phenomena remains elusive. Urban studies, in contrast, have recently prioritized urban migration and growth in the Global South as a subject of study for its timely relevance (Parnell and Robinson, 2012). As cities grow, and as they grow in countries experiencing dramatic population increases, how they form and are planned is increasingly important. However, the lines crossed during these regional and global flows of movement are often underemphasized when dealing with concerns in urbanism; even when addressed, studies tend to focus on borders as sites of economic-security challenges, like the US–Mexico border (e.g., Dear and Leclerc, 2003; Herzog 1990). In this chapter I aim to bring attention to the intersection of these two bodies of work as they exist in current urban and geographic theory. After exploring differences and commonalities between Northern and Southern cities, I then analyze the historical, economic, and political contexts of different border regions throughout the world. Though sharing the common characteristic of a national border (or borders), not all metropolises in border regions function in the same fashion. Formulating an overarching view of border cities, including their complications and points of difference, is useful for articulating a multipolar and nuanced guide to cities in the 21st century.

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Jeremy Woods and Peter M.W. Burley

A detailed pedagogical approach for equipping students with a toolbox of entrepreneurship skills, a professional orientation focused on quantified, deliverable accomplishments, and a "roll up your sleeves" attitude is critical in Entrepreneurship Education. This chapter outlines a program for hands-on teaching of entrepreneurship based on experience and best practice. A focus on how to create jobs and new venture starts through learning-by-doing projects, a student small business employment program, and a student and faculty venture incubator is provided. Finally, it offers a roadmap for growing the program campus-wide through a student entrepreneurship club and expanding the program community-wide to make a significant impact on the local economy.

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Mark Graham, Vili Lehdonvirta, Alex J. Wood, Helena Barnard, Isis Hjorth and David Peter Simon

Online platform work is increasingly important for workers living in low- and middle-income countries. This chapter investigates the potential for this new economic practice to benefit human development in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, our findings highlight that online platform work brings some benefits, such as improved earning opportunities, stimulating work and increased autonomy, for workers. However, it also represents a risk to the health and wellbeing of these workers as a result of social isolation, overwork, and insecurity. Moreover, the above benefits are spread unevenly due to high-levels of inequality being inherent to this form of work organization. Additionally, access to these benefits may be blocked by discrimination and predatory intermediaries. Online labour platforms also operate outside regulatory and normative frameworks that could provide workers with protections or generate tax revenues to fund development more widely. Data comes from 152 face-to-face semi-structured interviews with workers and stakeholders.