This chapter discusses the relevance of ports for economic development and next identifies port governance as a critical determinant of a well-functioning port industry. While in the past decades privately owned terminal operating companies have emerged and contributed to more efficient supply chains, in most ports a government-owned port authority continues to play a key role. However, there is a widespread understanding that the governance structure and capabilities of the port authority often are not adequate. This chapter discusses the emergence of a governance model in which the port authority operates as a landlord port development company, within an appropriate regulatory framework. The characteristics and economic rationale of this emerging governance model are discussed in detail, and key issues in the transition towards this model are discussed.
Peter de Langen and Periklis Saragiotis
Peter de Langen and Henrik Sornn-Friese
This chapter assesses the role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in ports and shipping. Insights from regulatory economics are used to identify industry characteristics under which the SOE model is expected to be effective. With the use of these insights, characteristics of ports, terminals and shipping services that may lead to the establishment of SOEs are identified. The empirical overview of SOEs in shipping and ports shows a rather large use of SOEs, especially in container terminal operations and port development. The use of SOEs particularly in port development can be well understood with insights from regulatory economics. The majority of SOEs in ports, terminals and shipping are active internationally. This raises important additional research questions, most importantly regarding the strategic rationale of SOE internationalization and the role of geopolitical considerations in international activities.