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Cathrine Filstad and Petter Gottschalk

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Cathrine Filstad and Petter Gottschalk

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Cathrine Filstad and Petter Gottschalk

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Petter Gottschalk

The insurance company takes on business responsibility to society by controlling the ownership of a clubhouse where a number of organized criminals are living as members of the motorcycle gang. The insurance company applies a business perspective, where it keeps the pledge in the clubhouse as long as individuals have debts with the firm. However, the insurance company is not willing to involve itself in law enforcement.
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Petter Gottschalk

Fraud examiners work in law firms and auditing firms, investigating suspicions of financial crime. These fraud examiners deny being responsible to society. They claim attorney–client privilege and client property when denying access to reports of investigations of white-collar crime. Fraud examiners are reluctant to share information with law enforcement agencies in society even when they have clear evidence of penal law.
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Petter Gottschalk

The concept of discrete stages or levels can be applied to corporate social responsibility. In a four-stage model, organizations at the bottom level maximize profits for shareholders without any other obligations. The only responsibility corporations have is that of maximizing profits to shareholders while engaging in open and free competition, without deception or fraud. Organizations at the top level activate corporate actions to contribute as active citizens in society. Corporate executives look for opportunities in society where the company can make a difference.
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Petter Gottschalk

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Organizational Opportunity and Deviant Behavior

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

Ever since Sutherland coined the term ‘white-collar crime’, researchers have struggled to understand and explain why some individuals abuse their privileged positions of trust and commit financial crime. This book makes a novel contribution to the development of convenience theory as a framework to understand and explain ‘white-collar crime’.
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Convenience in white-collar crime

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

Convenience is a concept that was theoretically mainly associated with efficiency in time savings. Today, convenience is associated with a number of other characteristics, such as reduced effort and reduced pain. Convenience is associated with terms such as fast, easy, and safe. Convenience says something about attractiveness and accessibility. A convenient individual is not necessarily bad or lazy. On the contrary, the person can be seen as smart and rational. Convenience orientation is conceptualized as the value that individuals and organizations place on actions with inherent characteristics of saving time and effort. Convenience orientation can be considered a value-like construct that influences behavior and decision-making.

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Economical dimension of convenience theory

Convenience in White-Collar Crime

Petter Gottschalk

The motive for white-collar crime is simply financial gain. The motive for financial gain, however, can vary. Crime might be a response to both possibilities and threats, and it might be a response to both strengths and weaknesses. An offense can enable exploration and exploitation of a business or a personal possibility that may otherwise seem unobtainable. An offense can enable avoidance of business threats or personal threats. An offense can make the business or the personal situation even stronger, and it can reduce and compensate for business or personal weaknesses. Financial gain as motive for white-collar crime can either benefit the individual or the organization. If illegal financial gain benefits the individual, it is labeled occupational crime. The individual benefits personally from illegal economical gain in a setting where his or her occupation enables white-collar crime. The motive for personal financial gain can vary in terms of possibilities and threats, and strengths and weaknesses.