Sexuality is fundamental to human existence, meaning its regulation and governance has always been central to the exercise of power. This chapter takes the example of sex work to explore the spatial dimensions of this regulation, tracing the changing governmental techniques which serve to control, discipline and survey this form of sexuality, one often regarded as posing a challenge to ‘normal’ sexual behaviours. Noting that spatial enclosure has been a widely -used state tactic designed to situate sex work on the margins of respectability, this cChapter explores the consequences of this for those working in the sex industry, and teases out the wider implications of this for our understanding of the relations of sexuality and space.
This chapter argues for increased attention to be paid to retail gentrification, or what some call ‘boutiquification’, defined here as involving the up-scaling of shops and related businesses, and the concomitant displacement of the local stores and services on which working class residents rely. Drawing mainly on UK and US examples, and foregrounding questions of fashion, style and taste, the chapter stresses the role retail change has in changing the ‘atmosphere’ of a neighbourhood, instigating displacement pressures that weigh most heavily on the poorest and most vulnerable, ultimately encouraging the colonisation of inner city districts by middle class, consumer values. While the majority of studies focus on shops as spaces fulfilling residents’ economic needs, i.e. providing affordable foodstuffs, in this chapter the role that shops play in working class and ethnic communities as spaces of sociality and generosity is also considered.
Jonathan Ward and Phil Hubbard
There is now a substantial academic literature in urban studies critiquing the way that restrictive ideas of culture are deployed in urban policy, to the exclusion of many forms of vernacular creativity whose role in urban life remains unacknowledged. The way that the visual arts are often deemed an appropriate mechanism for urban regeneration is a case in point, with many schemes to reinvigorate declining or shrinking cities pursuing strategies based on the creation of arts quarters or flagship art galleries. This chapter examines the consequences of such strategies, taking the example of Folkestone (England), a town struggling with legacies of post-industrialism associated with the decline of its port status. Exploring the way that Folkestone is being reinvented as a ‘cultural destination’, the chapter highlights the limitations of this approach, focusing on the way that current policies have alienated and excluded certain forms of local creativity at the same time they have encouraged a putative gentrification process that threatens to displace those that arts-based gentrification set out to assist.
Phil Hubbard, Andrew Gorman-Murray and Catherine J. Nash
Though initially slow to acknowledge this, urban studies has suggested that the city both facilities and encourages a more diverse range of sexual identities and practices than its nominal counterpart, the rural. In the first instance this manifested in studies of ‘urban vice’; latterly, this has involved consideration of queer urban lives and the possibilities of different ways of living and loving in the city. This chapter considers these different literatures, their contribution to urban studies more generally, concluding that there remains the need for a more thorough integration of desire and the erotic in the corpus of urban studies. Keywords: cities, urbanization, desire, erotic city