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Philip C Stenning and Clifford D Shearing

Departing from a wide range of academic insights, the authors of this chapter analyse how a multiplicity of policing tasks is provided by a wide range of public and private security providers, at national as well as international level. It took a long time before academic literature started to devote attention to the emergence of plural policing. By 2000, it was hard to identify a public policing task that was not provided, in some shape or fashion, by a private security actor. Policing came to be recognized as a social function that has gradually been embedded in a wide range of functions such as school teachers and subway employees. Virtually anybody can make a significant contribution to policing provision, which has become more salient with the application of new surveillance technologies. The authors recommend a number of reforms for plural policing to be governed effectively and legitimately, but are still in an early stage of legal development