Research on migrant demographics, including the number of legal and unauthorized: The arrival of migrants to non-metropolitan gateways with little experience of immigration has, for many places, reversed patterns of emigration, economic stagnancy and demographic decline. It has challenged popular preconceptions of non-urban space as being socially backward and static. Many different types of migrants including refugees and economic migrants settle in emerging destinations and face a number of challenges as they find their way in a new place. A constellation of social relations is evident as they interact with a range of individuals in the workplace, in their community and in their neighbourhoods. This chapter explores those emerging, kaleidoscopic relations and shows how migrants’ lives are constantly shifting demanding them to continually negotiate their role in a new society. I start by elaborating on key features of emerging destinations, before moving on to consider the complex relations that evolve in these places, viewing those relations from a macro, meso and micro level perspectives.
Philip Martin, Lisa Scullion and Philip Brown
This chapter analyses the situation of Roma, a group of EU citizens that is often discriminated against and at the core of political debates on EU citizenship.
Philip Martin and Ibrahim Sirkeci
Remittances to developing countries, monies sent by international migrants to their countries of origin, topped $1 billion a day a decade ago and are projected to reach $440 billion in 2015. Remittances to developing countries surpassed official development aid in the mid-1990s and have risen much faster than the number of international migrants. Remittances help migrants and their families to achieve upward mobility and open a window to faster economic and job growth in migrant countries of origin. Remittances raise two major issues: how to maximise the flow of monies that migrants send home voluntarily and how to ensure that remittances reduce poverty and spur development in migrant areas of origin. Sound economic policies that provide investment opportunities maximise inward remittance flows, but there is no formula to ensure that remittances spur broader economic development.