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Philip Shapira and Jan Youtie

This chapter considers the available evidence on the impact of technology and innovation advisory services. Technology and innovation advisory services are services provided directly by specialists particularly to small and medium-sized enterprises to support and stimulate improvements in business operations including productivity, efficiency, production, quality, waste reduction, information technology and logistics. The review focuses on developed economies where well-established technology and innovation advisory services are found. We provide an overview of technology and innovation advisory services, including the major types of approaches and services adopted and the rationale for public support. This is followed by a discussion of leading examples of technology advisory and innovation services in the UK and in other developed economies. The chapter then collates and examines the available literature, including formal evaluation studies, selected academic papers and accessible grey literature, to assess the evidence on impact. The reviewed studies generally find that technology and innovation advisory services provide positive benefits for participating firms. The types of benefits achieved include reductions in costs, improved quality, reduced waste and improved environmental performance, higher productivity, and new product development and innovation. Levels of investment involved (by both the public sector and private participating firms) are typically not high. Similarly, the net benefits achieved are often relatively modest for individual projects, although such incremental improvements add up and can make the difference to SME survival or decline. Lessons and insights for policymakers are highlighted.
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Jan Youtie and Philip Shapira

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Stefan Kuhlmann, Philip Shapira and Ruud Smits

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Philip Shapira, Ruud Smits and Stefan Kuhlmann

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Edited by Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philip Shapira

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Edited by Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philip Shapira

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Jakob Edler, Abdullah Gök, Paul Cunningham and Philip Shapira

This chapter introduces the reader to the wealth of evidence in this Handbook, and provides guidance for the interpretation of its findings. It first presents the basic definitions and delineations of innovation policy and discusses innovation policy rationales and their limitations. The chapter then reflects on the different understandings of policy instruments and on the nature of policy impact, highlighting the benefits, value and limits of impact analysis. Against this background, a typology of innovation policy instruments is presented which has been developed for this Handbook to systematise the evidence and which allows distinct entry points for readers interested in different kinds of instruments. After providing an explanation of the methodology applied throughout the Handbook, the chapter closes with reflections on how to interpret the findings of the book.
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Jakob Edler, Philip Shapira, Paul Cunningham and Abdullah Gök

This concluding chapter synthesises the main findings and insights from the study of available evidence on the effectiveness of innovation policy intervention as presented in the Handbook. It begins by reminding the reader of the overall concept of innovation policy and impact followed throughout the Handbook. It then highlights key findings from the evidence on the effectiveness of the range of innovation policy instruments. It discusses overall lessons regarding the effectiveness and impacts of these innovation support measures. In addition, the concluding chapter offers observations and insights about the state of evidence on the effectiveness of policies in this domain, including considerations of evaluation methods, approaches and gaps. This provides a basis for deliberation on improved policy design and implementation, as well as concluding thoughts about evaluation and the production of evidence more broadly to support innovation policy making in the future.
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Edited by Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök and Philip Shapira

Innovation underpins competitiveness, is crucial to addressing societal challenges, and its support has become a major public policy goal. But what really works in innovation policy, and why? This Handbook, compiled by leading experts in the field, is the first comprehensive guide to understanding the logic and effects of innovation polices. The Handbook develops a conceptualisation and typology of innovation policies, presents meta-evaluations for 16 key innovation policy instruments and analyses evidence on policy-mix. For each policy instrument, underlying rationales and examples are presented, along with a critical analysis of the available impact evidence. Providing access to primary sources of impact analysis, the book offers an insightful assessment of innovation policy practice and its evaluation.