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Ping Zhao, Jun Zhou and Qiong Li

The chapter provides an account of the transition of teacher education from a single-purpose teacher preparation system to the current system where the responsibility of preparing future teachers is shared between normal universities and general-purpose (or comprehensive) colleges and universities. This has improved the qualification profiles of teachers in China. However, quality issues and regional disparities remain to be addressed.

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David Kemp, Han Guodong, Li Ping, Wang Zhongwu, Zhao Mengli, Udval Gombosuren, Gantuya Jargalsaihan, Zhang Yingjun, Hou Xiangyang and Jane Addison

A description and discussion of herder communities, grassland ecology, livestock systems and animal production in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia are provided. The description includes reference to specific grazing trials. An overview of the modelling designed to capture some of the complexities of these systems is provided. The bioeconomic sustainable grazing model used to estimate environmental benefits of changed production systems under alternative policy settings model, and referred to in Chapter 7 and elsewhere in the book, is introduced. Income and livelihood impacts of changing production systems under different market and environmental conditions are reported.

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David Kemp, Li Ping, Jane Addison, Karl Behrendt, Wang Zhongwu, Han Guodong, Zhao Mengli, Uvdal Bombosuren and Hou Xiangyang

Grasslands provide not only a range of food and fibre and other provisioning services but also a range of environmental services. This chapter identifies, and compares and contrasts the relative importance of these services in China and Mongolia. It also discusses the set of these environmental services in both countries and describes the links between the services. The link between grassland degradation and these services is also examined.