In this chapter, we examine the impact of gender inequality on the success of women-owned ventures, specifically in terms of the latter’s rate of survival and revenue growth. Utilizing liberal feminist theory as the conceptual lens, we test our hypotheses on 4744 US-based ventures founded in 2004 and surveyed over seven years, as part of the Kauffman Firm Survey. We find that while gender inequality does not have a significant impact on firm survival, it does negatively affect the venture’s revenue growth. At the same time, an absence of gender inequality has a significant positive impact on women-owned ventures, making them achieve much higher growth compared to their male-led counterparts. The study findings have important implications for public policy, institutional reforms, and availability of support services at the entrepreneurial ecosystem level.
R. Isil Yavuz, Harry Sapienza and Youngeun Chu
This study examines the effect of resource flexibility on the early internationalization and performance of international new ventures. We test our hypotheses using data from the Kauffman Firm Survey on 2424 newly founded new ventures in the USA. After controlling for the amount of total resources, we show that new ventures with more flexible resource configurations tend to internationalize earlier. In addition, we also find that resource flexibility helps international new ventures to perform better in terms of both international sales intensity and short-term revenue growth. However, we find no significant effect of flexible resource on the short-term survival of international new ventures.