Concept, Policy and Implementation
Edited by Ricard Zapata-Barrero
Ricard Zapata-Barrero and Lorenzo Gabrielli
This chapter analyzes the ethical implications of the securitization of migration, both in political discourse and policy practice, with a particular focus on border politics and admission policies. The chapter begins with an overview of recent literature on the ethics of migration from the angle of security. We demonstrate that there has emerged in recent years – in particular following the Seville European Council of 2002 – a growing tendency to treat origin countries as co-responsible for migration management. In tandem with this growing tendency, the scholarly world has fostered an increased interest in linking the actions of origin and reception states; recent studies in this vein have investigated circular migration, policy externalization, surveillance-based migration control, the migration–development nexus, and the notion of integration as a three-way process. Some other (largely international- and human rights-oriented) studies also incorporate a third actor that has heretofore been largely ignored by both the receiving and the origin countries: the migrant. We argue that, even if the framework has changed, destination states still monopolize the domain of security. Among the frameworks we examine in detail in this chapter include the picture of the Mediterranean Sea, termed by some the Mare Mortum, and the case of refugees vis-à-vis the growing European concern surrounding escapees from cruel wars.