Aviation is an important component of the global transport task. Whilst generally well integrated as an industry, its integration with other components of transport could be improved to achieve more sustainable outcomes, and better transport options for consumers. Integration of high-speed rail and aviation has not been as simple as initially envisaged, with a number of factors requiring further consideration to explain why air-rail partnerships are not as prevalent as desired. Moving past the physical integration of air and rail terminals, which were assumed to be the key to successful air-rail partnerships, deeper research questioning of industry and market structures may provide useful insight to policy makers and management to develop better transport options for passengers. The growth in air transport journeys has also led to greater localised congestion at airports and so the integration of aviation into urban transport is also a key policy focus area that requires attention, particularly how operators can work together better both from air to ground and ground to ground. Finally, given the concerns of the airline sector’s contribution to global warming and the use of voluntary emissions programs such as CORSIA should be investigated as a first-best policy response. Second-best policy responses such as the use of HSR may provide difficulties in achieving environmental outcomes.