The historical development of immigration in Europe, its geographical pattern, the types of migration and the characteristics of migrants are described in the first part of this chapter. It concludes that immigration has become a relevant issue in all EU countries, though different in time, form and intensity. Immigration policies of receiving countries greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Integration policies influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination and their access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines three different migration and integration regimes in Europe. Trade unions in European countries are thus confronted with different forms of migration, with different migration and integration regimes, and with different types of migrants. Their attitudes and actions on immigration and migrants should be seen in the light of such different starting positions.
Stefania Marino, Rinus Penninx and Judith Roosblad
The book offers an analysis of the relationship between trade unions, immigration and migrant workers across 11 European countries in the period between 1990 and 2015. This introductory chapter explains the editors’ approach to this study, which is based on the comparative framework as developed in an earlier book by Penninx and Roosblad in 2000. This framework is critically reconsidered and its validity is checked in the light of recent contextual changes. It informs the development of the main questions that will underpin both the structure and content of the 11 country cases and the comparative analysis presented in the concluding chapter. In addition, this introduction addresses relevant methodological aspects and outlines the structure of the book.
Stefania Marino, Judith Roosblad and Rinus Penninx
This chapter provides a cross-country comparison of union stances towards immigration and migrant workers by following the analytical framework discussed in the introduction. First, it provides an analysis of union responses to the three ‘dilemmas’. It subsequently comments on the extent to which the explanatory variables included in the framework account for observed differences across countries. Our comparative analysis has resulted in the identification of patterns in unions’ policies and actions across three groups of countries: the central-eastern European countries – the Czech Republic and Poland – whose trade unions have relatively undeveloped policies in relation to immigration and migrant workers; the north-west European countries – Austria, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK – whose trade unions have focused on the defence of migrant workers’ conditions in the labour market; and the Mediterranean countries – France, Italy and Spain – in which the defence of social rights has also been important.