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Robert E. Ployhart and Jason Kautz

The chapter applies a human capital management lens to research on selection, assessment and turnover. It examines two core but inter-dependent HRM processes – selection and retention – in the context of the talent management research agenda. It examines the relationship between turnover and performance through a number of research lenses: the loss for valuable knowledge, skills, and abilities (the KSAO model); operational disruption and loss of important information flows; and human resource accounting for the true costs of turnover. It discusses the effect of cultural influences on predictor methods, the impact of cultural differences on retention practices and outcomes, and the use of technology for selection and retention. It calls for more study of selection and retention at the unit or firm level, the incorporation of theory from organisational strategy, and the link between investments in selection and training and the recovery of firm productivity.

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Robert E. Ployhart and Gilad Chen

Small groups and teams are the building blocks of modern organizations. Organizations that better utilize groups and teams deigns should manifest greater human capital resource flexibility, performance, and transfer of knowledge and innovation. Hence, it is sensible that the human capital architecture should be focused on meso-level (groups and teams) constructs and processes. Yet, as we discuss in this chapter, research on the mobilization of strategic human capital resources needs to give much more explicit attention to groups and teams than it has to date. We take a simple position: significant advancements will occur in the field of strategic human capital resources by integrating research with meso-level theorizing on groups and teams. By introducing meso-level theory to research on strategic human capital resources, our field will be able to far better articulate the important social reality of contemporary business, and the implications of such reality to the utilization of human capital resources.

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M. Audrey Korsgaard, Robert E. Ployhart and Michael D. Ulrich

The consequences of intragroup conflict for group processes and outcomes are myriad and complex. Understanding the nature and origins of intragroup conflict is therefore essential to effective group functioning, yet theory and research emergence of group-level conflict is lacking. The bulk of research on antecedents of intragroup conflict has focused on group-level predictors, downplaying the role of cross-level relationships involving individual factors and interpersonal processes. The core thesis of this chapter is that cross-level emergent processes lead to substantial and systematic variation in conflict perceptions within groups. Based on this premise, we explore two broad themes. First, we discuss how intragroup conflict varies in degree and form, exploring various configurations beyond consensus and dispersion models. Second, we address the processes by which different configurations of conflict emerge, namely: direct contact, indirect contact, and coalition formation. We conclude the chapter by discussing the implications of this approach for theory building and research.

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Dave Lepak, Kaifeng Jiang and Robert E. Ployhart

This chapter examines the nature of strategic HRM as a system and draws attention to different models that have been used to analyse this system, such as the abilities, motivations and opportunities (AMO) model, or models of the employee–organisation relationship. It lays out the rapid evolution of the field and its future trajectory. Attention is drawn to four shifts: giving more attention to the different patterns of strategic execution often seen across work groups within a single organisation; more attention to those factors that promote group work; understanding how team cognition, team diversity, team demographics, and team efficacy impact effectiveness; and understanding the linkages between these issues to explain how group-level factors help transfer the impact of organisation-level HR systems to outcomes across levels. The chapter draws attention to the importance of time in HR strategy with more longitudinal datasets, better controls for prior factors that might predispose an organisation to perform in one way versus another, and not assuming linear effects. It blends ideas from human capital theory with those from the field of strategy and a resource-based view of the firm, and how this has led to the current attention that is being given the different forms of human capital and the enabling processes that transform individual knowledge, skill, ability, and other characteristics (the KSAO model) into unique, unit-, operations- and firm-level resources.

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Anthony J. Nyberg, Robert E. Ployhart and Thomas P. Moliterno

The chapters in this volume demonstrate that scholarly interest in human capital resources (HCR) is vibrant and growing. This volume unites 51 scholars steeped in sociology, economics, strategy, labor economics, human resources, organizational behavior, and psychology. The range of experience contributes to differing views about HCR: what they are, what they do, and how they are formed. When looking across chapters, one may wonder how we can reach an understanding of HCR when leading scholars have such different views. How can there be scientific advancement of HCR if there is such a broad diversity of expert opinion? We argue such a view is unnecessarily pessimistic and misses the point of this book, and the efforts of so many extraordinary researchers. We are encouraged to see researchers exploring the nuances of HCR from a variety of scholarly domains, theoretical perspectives, and academic disciplines. It is through the variability and diversity of these different perspectives that we can understand the multiple dimensions of the HCR construct. Moreover, this volume demonstrates commonalities in the types of questions scholars ask: how human capital (HC) becomes a human capital resource (HCR); how an HCR becomes strategic human capital resource (SHCR); the factors that shape the process of HCR formation; and how HCRs affect outcomes across organizational levels.