Although truly sentient machines are science fiction, AI experts believe society is on the verge of a technological tipping point. This transition may shortly resemble the shift from personal computing to the Internet – in which no aspect of our daily lives remains untouched. As we navigate this extraordinary gateway, what types of intellectual property policies will foster innovation and secure our lead in this revolution? At the heart of this issue lies the question of how to manage invention in which a computer participates, or even dominates, the inventive process. The question can be thought of as a matching problem, trying to connect the entity that invented a product, with the proper allocation of inventor rights. The aim of this matching problem is to incentivize innovation. This chapter examines each aspect of the matching equation, recommending a pathway for optimizing both innovation and competition.