Robin Hickman and David Banister
This chapter examines the potential contribution of the transport sector to environmental sustainability. It has three parts: first, the scale of the challenge is outlined, including current levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other impacts. Second, we discuss the need for visions for sustainable transport, including scenario building, addressing environmental limits, and the sustainable mobility paradigm. We speculate how visioning and scenarios might become more central to decision-making. This would allow forward-looking strategies and programmes, focused on the achievement of long-term policy objectives, to be developed more effectively. A wide range of policy measures can be utilised in strategy development, including Avoid, Shift and Improve measures. Finally, we reflect on the implications of such a revised approach for research and practice, including resolving issues of constrained space, capacity and prioritisation between modes. Transport planning can be developed as a participatory and deliberative process, providing access to transport and activities for all.
Robin Hickman and David Banister
Marco Dean and Robin Hickman
Considering how major transport projects should be assessed continues to generate debate amongst academics, infrastructure specialists, investors and governments alike. This chapter compares traditional Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Multi Actor Multi Criteria Analyis (MAMCA) methodologies. It considers the South Fylde Line, linking Blackpool, a large town and seaside resort in North West England, the Fylde Coast and the city of Preston. The authors critically discuss the appraisal of three potential alternative improvements of the rail line, proposed with the view to supporting regeneration in the area. The appraisal includes both a CBA and a MAMCA exercise. Based on this analysis, the authors contends that, particularly in areas characterized by severe social deprivation problems, a MAMCA approach to appraisal may be preferable to analyst-led, economic-centric tools such as CBA. However, participatory MCA methodologies should not be regarded as a panacea for better decisions and their application is also subject to several issues which require careful consideration.
Mengqiu Cao and Robin Hickman
This chapter utilises the Capabilities Approach to assess different levels of social equity in relation to transport provision in East Beijing. The aim of the analysis is to explore the different levels of social equity relative to gender, age, hukou, personal income and car ownership, specifically in terms of capabilities and functionings, that is, we investigate how the perceived opportunity to travel and access activities as well as actual travel differs across population groups. East Beijing, and in particular the district of Guomao, is used as a case study, to illustrate features of a relatively wealthy area with abundant transport resources. The research analysis shows that capabilities and functionings differ according to an individual’s socio-economic characteristics. In transport planning, in China and beyond, we would argue that transport-related social inequity has been largely overlooked in developing transport systems and is not considered to any significant extent in project appraisal.
Beatriz Mella Lira and Robin Hickman
The chapter examines the use of a participatory analysis tool in the context of a controversial Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) project in Santiago, Chile. It illustrates (the lack of) the social impacts that could have been more extensively considered through a collective evaluation with experts from different disciplines. Although this exercise was not part of the official project appraisal process, it shows that the social impacts initially considered were not comprehensive. The case study is the Nueva Alameda Providencia bus corridor, and the method is a participatory workshop based on multi-actor multi-criteria analysis (MAMCA). The results demonstrate the strengths and limitations perceived by policymakers, not only in the case study, but concerning broader project assessment approaches in Chile. The chapter also outlines the advantages of incorporating a broader spectrum of social impacts, and new measures in order to improve social equity in future projects.
Robin Hickman, Beatriz Mella Lira, Moshe Givoni and Karst Geurs
This introductory chapter, from Robin Hickman, Beatriz Mella Lira, Moshe Givoni and Karst Geurs, outlines the topic of transport, including transport systems and new transport projects, and the associated spatial and social impacts. Definitions of transport, space and equity are given, providing the framework for the chapters that follow. The context to the book is found in our cities, where we see increasing inequity, in income, activities and life opportunities. A focus on supporting economic growth, the financialisation of development, and overlooking of distributional issues, has led to very unequal lifestyles, including significantly unequal participation in activities across many cities globally. Transport systems and new transport projects play an important part in this, with different transport infrastructure leading to inequitable travel behaviours, such as certain socio-demographic groups using particular parts of the transport system and accessing particular activities and opportunities.
Karst Geurs, Moshe Givoni, Beatriz Mella Lira and Robin Hickman
The final chapter, from Karst Geurs, Moshe Givoni, Beatriz Mella Lira and Robin Hickman, brings the edited collection to a close. The material from the previous chapters is discussed, synthesising the current ‘state-of-the-art’ in our understanding on transport, space and equity. The chapter reflects on the emerging issues for future research and practice.