The chapter focuses on leadership in regional economic growth and development as an institutional variable that is influenced by governance, culture, history and other institutional factors. Following the consideration of different leadership theories and definitions of core concepts, the chapter explains that most leadership is incremental and addresses modest problems in the context of relatively stable economic or equilibrium conditions. However, when such standing patterns are disrupted, major leadership-driven change usually occurs to transform the existing economic structure. Such leadership is explained by the contingency theory of leadership. Of 44 regional leadership case studies, 42 can be understood from the perspective of contingency theory; only two are explained by the great man theory. Selected case studies from the US, Europe and Asia illustrate the contingency theory argument.
Roger R. Stough
A series of cluster and regional dynamics studies provide growing evidence that supports a hypothesis that industrial clusters evolve somewhat regularly through a series of stages. This stage or cycle theory views clusters as proceeding from initiation to some asymptotic limit with subsequent decline and/or rejuvenation, that is, resiliency. This chapter examines, on the basis of several case studies, the process or lack of a process that lagging or declining clusters use to reinvent themselves or fail. Examination of the case studies reveals five general types of histories that clusters and their regions, and their urban contexts appear to experience. From this research a typology of cluster dynamics (resiliency types) is proposed. Clusters in this chapter are defined as having a geographic locus as well as an extra local network component and are viewed from a systems perspective.