Over the last three decades, there has been a high prevalence of child mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and particularly in the artisanal mines. The mines are considered artisanal because the mining exploitation is conducted through manual and rudimentary methods to extract and process mined minerals. Despite the adoption of national laws and policies prohibiting the worst forms of child labor, this chapter explains how children remain exposed to labor exploitation in the DRC’s mining industry. This chapter also highlights the migratory aspect of artisanal mining in the DRC, and provides a broad definition of the term “child migrant.” It equally addresses the dangerous working conditions in artisanal mines and their impacts on child miners. Correspondingly, the chapter concludes with an assessment of the protective measures for child miners in the DRC.