Political and industrial decision makers have to promote technological innovations that pave the way for a low-carbon economy while ensuring the security and competitiveness of raw material supplies. In this complex decision-making environment, it is highly challenging to obtain a holistic and well-grounded overview of the wider institutional environment affecting industrial value chains. This chapter illustrates the managerial relevance and implications of a raw materials transition through a case study of the German chemical industry. Utilizing a cradle-to-gate approach, an integrated techno-economic-environmental evaluation of viable carbon resource alternatives for producing organic chemicals is conducted. The results illustrate the complexity and diversity of issues decision makers face. Additionally, qualitative factors are considered to illustrate motivators and risks that could influence decisions about whether to invest in alternative carbon feedstock. Finally, management theories and practices that could support strategic decision makers in resolving the conflicting demands of the institutional environment are discussed.