Senior entrepreneurship may be an option for innovation-driven countries when they are trying to increase their overall entrepreneurship rate. Research gaps are large, however, when it comes to inter-temporal comparisons of senior entrepreneurship and to the innovativeness of senior entrepreneurship across countries. This exploratory chapter is based upon GEM data and focuses on innovative entrepreneurship in innovation-driven countries. It shows that senior entrepreneurship has grown in absolute as well as in relative terms in the 15 countries studied. This increase was stronger than the increase of the share of elderly people in the total population. Consequently, in 2018, entrepreneurship is much more frequent among 55- to 64-year-olds than it was 12 years ago. Nevertheless, and from a static view, the level of senior entrepreneurship is (still) lower than its population share might signal. Second, businesses of senior entrepreneurs are neither less nor more innovative than those of younger entrepreneurs. Instead, innovative businesses are a small minority among senior entrepreneurs, too. The case study of Germany revealed that innovativeness differs between both age groups, but not in favour of one or the other group for each of the indicators. In the concluding section several policy implications are discussed.
Arne Vorderwülbecke and Rolf Sternberg
University spin-off formation can impact local economic growth. This paper addresses the contribution to a university's entrepreneurial support structure by individuals who started a company out of a university. If this contribution is sustainable enough, it may induce a self-amplifying process by which the university's entrepreneurial support-structure is continuously upgraded. Based on a qualitative case study of Leibniz University Hannover, including expert interviews and an in-depth document analyses, it is shown that alumni spin-off entrepreneurs indeed play an important role for a university's entrepreneurial support structure. However, the empirical findings indicate to a differentiation in respect of the nature of such a contribution. While it is an essential ingredient for the realization of particular support measures, it is only a decorative accessory for the evolution of such a structure. The contribution of alumni spin-off entrepreneurs to the upgrade of a university's entrepreneurial support structure leads to the named self-amplifying process.
Gerhard Krauss and Rolf Sternberg
This chapter introducing the edited volume describes the emergent topics of creativity and entrepreneurship as well as their interdependencies. Different schools of thinking and theorizing creativity and entrepreneurship, and contrasting contributions and perspectives from various scientific and disciplinary fields, coexist. Some of them will be brought together in this handbook of research on entrepreneurship and creativity. This introduction has two aims. First, the interpretations and main theoretical and empirical insights concerning creativity and entrepreneurship are presented. The multidisciplinarity of both concepts is explicitly considered. Also the relevance of entrepreneurship and creativity for government policies is briefly discussed, given their popularity at the supranational level of (e.g.) EU policies, at the national level of central governments, at the regional level of federal state governments and, finally, at the local level of city governments. Secondly, the chapter briefly summarizes the aims, the methods and the results of each of the other 12 contributions to this edited volume on the handbook of research on entrepreneurship and creativity.