Chapter 4 by Fernando Mendez, Roman Zwicky and Daniel Kübler deals with the European Citizens Initiative (ECI) from a comparative perspective. In this chapter the authors take stock of the European Union’s most recent democratic innovation, the ECI, with a view to evaluating its potential to live up to its democratic potential. In doing so they adopt a threefold strategy. First, they unpack the institutional features of the ECI to situate it within a broader universe of relatively well-understood mechanisms of direct democracy. Second, on the basis of an analysis of all ECI initiatives to date, they present some general trends regarding its use and functioning. The third, more speculative, analysis looks at possible institutional trajectories for the ECI based on our largely comparative analysis. Their findings suggest that the ECI is far from being unique and that some of the problems that surround its functioning are common to other systems. In addition, despite its novelty, they can already detect some general patterns as well as indirect effects on member states. Whether the instrument could ever fulfil its democratic potential, let alone empower European citizens, remains very much an open question. The evidence thus far presents a mixed picture.