Ronald J. Burke
This chapter reviews initiatives for increasing the numbers of women in senior management and on corporate boards of directors. It begins by listing the benefits to women, men, and organizations from these efforts. This is followed by an analysis of barriers that managerial women face. Fixing organizational cultures instead of fixing women is emphasized; women are as ambitions as are men. Initiatives that are considered include the use of developmental job experiences; creating mentor and sponsorship programs; individual coaching; supporting the creation of women’s networks tied to achieving important organizational performance objectives; work–life balance and workplace flexibility possibilities; maternity coaching to support return to work; addressing bias, discrimination, and pay inequities; and involving men in leadership roles in culture change efforts. This chapter recommends undertaking workplace culture audits to identify challenges women face, setting goals for change and evaluating progress, and making gender balance a central item on the organizational agenda of the executive committee and communicating these goals to all staff.
Ronald J. Burke
This chapter sets the stage for the rest of the volume. It begins with a review of the positive and negative effects of work and working on individual and family life. Work and organizations are also changing. Increasing levels of stress and decreasing levels of work engagement are noted. Health and well-being are then defined. Examples of unhealthy workplaces are offered, identifying characteristics of such workplaces. A case is then made for creating psychologically healthy workplaces. Positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship are seen as central here. Examples of their role in creating such workplaces are then described. Concepts such as compassion, virtuousness, support and gratitude are examined. Developing leaders using these concepts is then explored. A number of interventions to achieve psychologically healthy workplaces follow.