This chapter reviews the major research and theory concerning collaborative public management. Topics include: what is collaboration? Who are the participants? What is the process? How are collaborations structured? What are the sought outcomes? Why might collaboration be used as a public management tool (for both theoretical and practical reasons)? What are the conditions and skills necessary for successful collaboration? What are the challenges of collaboration? What is the future of collaboration in public management?
Andrew Osorio and Rosemary O’Leary
American courts are a major institutional player in the field of domestic environmental policy. Through judicial review, courts set standards in environmental law and exercise oversight of the federal agencies responsible for establishing and implementing environmental regulations. This entry begins by providing an introductory summary of the American court system with particular attention to environmental law and judicial oversight of agency actions. Next, several observations concerning the current impact of courts on environmental policy are synthesized from recent legal literature. Finally, concluding remarks are offered regarding the future of American courts and U.S. environmental policy.
Daniel H. Nelson, Rosemary O’Leary, Larry D. Schroeder, Misty Grayer and Nidhi Vij
The challenges of collaborating in the Indian Forest Service (IFS) include hierarchical structure, misalignment of interests, different organization cultures, clashing time horizons, numerous stakeholders, low accountability, complex political environments, frequent transfers of personnel, low trust, lack of transparency, inability to see collaborative advantage, lack of public service motivation, and lack of collaborative attributes or skills. To further understand these challenges, we surveyed 140 senior IFS officers and found that 91 percent indicate an effort to use collaboration as a management and leadership strategy to help them improve outcomes by leveraging resources and providing a catalyst for innovation. In an attempt to improve the success of these collaboration efforts, we developed a hypothesis for future research based on what we call the Need-Attitude-Skillset (NAS) theory. We conclude that collaboration can take place even in a highly regimented, hierarchical organizational culture, but not without significant challenges. More important than strong authority, pressure, and mandates is: (1) an articulated need to collaborate; (2) public service motivation coupled with an attitude that sees collaborative advantage; and (3) a strong collaborative problem solving-skillset that emphasizes communication.