Empowering and commoditizing, with predicted educational outcomes ranging from a utopian to a dystopian future, the media and academia are making sweeping generalizations about Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Such hyperbole about innovations is common, and often misguided. Historically, online learning pedagogy began with cognitive-behaviorist approaches followed by social learning, connectivism and community learning. The chapter’s discussion of MOOC pedagogy, success measures, types and categorizations and an online learning continuum should prove useful for educators and administrators considering MOOC initiatives or research. This chapter helps ground the hyperbole, reviewing MOOCs as the latest _ not the last _ in a long line of distance learning innovations, and positioning MOOCs as one of four proposed categories of online learning. The study has a strong educational focus, exemplified by differences between the two main MOOC pedagogies, extended (xMOOC) and connectivist (cMOOC), and MOOCs’ abysmal completion rates. Educators, administrators and industry should also benefit from discussion of a major MOOC unknown: viable business models. Although there are no proven or definitive models, MOOCs offer exciting opportunities to explore new and innovative education delivery. The chapter does, however, suggest a few strategies for implementing MOOCs and ways to measure MOOC success. Due in part to the newness of MOOCs and the small discipline size, the few existing hospitality and tourism examples is a limitation of this chapter. Regardless, the universality of distance learning and MOOCs extends to hospitality and tourism.
Jamie Murphy, Nadzeya Kalbaska, Lorenzo Cantoni, Laurel Horton-Tognazzini, Peter Ryan and Alan Williams
Ryan Garvey and Anthony Murphy
Robert Lawson and Ryan Murphy
There are many different indicators of institutional quality that measure one aspect or set of aspects of the social, economic, and political environment. The degree of correlation among these measures leads to a concern that some other more fundamental underlying aspect of the good society is really behind claims that institutions matter. This study examines six indicators of institutional quality to see whether their statistical performance against a common benchmark, GDP per capita, is similar or not. The answer, based on our evidence, is somewhere in the middle. The concepts embedded in the various measures of institutional quality clearly overlap in many ways but in other ways they are very different.
The existing literature on economic governance in the EU is focused on the substantive changes to the rules and has, to date, given less weight to exploring the changing trends in the enforcement of those rules across the whole system of governance. This chapter seeks to fill this gap in the literature by taking a broad view of the enforcement structures and practices in a number of areas of economic governance. The chapter explores the extent to which the new rules will be more effectively enforced, with a particular focus on the excessive deficit procedure, the macro-economic imbalance procedure, the conditionality of financial assistance and the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance. The chapter argues that similarities in subject matter between areas may mask underlying policy differences that will have an impact on the effective enforcement of the rules. Moreover, areas that appear very different have certain shared features in their enforcement structures (i.e. staged, automatic, ratcheted and differential enforcement strategies) that may enhance effectiveness in those areas. The conclusion finds that innovation and experimentation in enforcement of economic governance has been fuelled, or even led, by the economic crisis. However, the chapter closes by considering the political barriers (i.e. political interference and political apathy) that may nullify the benefits of this creativity and innovation.