Policing, understood as being the enforcement of fundamental social laws and rules, is more than ever expected to be performed with high degrees of legitimacy, transparency and accountability. It is a major challenge for governments and agencies to avoid the illegitimate use of violence or class, gender, age or minority-biased enforcement of the law, as well as corrupt conduct. Law enforcement and police officers carry a significant responsibility in enforcing formal laws and rules. Police recruitment and training cannot be fully understood outside the constitutional regime, the law system, the policing structure and the history of a relevant country. This chapter provides an internationally comparative overview on how countries, across the world, are adapting police recruitment and training policies to cope with on-going societal changes. The authors demonstrate that many agencies, in the observed countries, require their senior officers to have a university degree, which sharply contrasts with the more common policy of recruiting under-average educated and under-trained officers for the lowest ranks.