Leonidas C. Leonidou and Saeed Samiee
Saeed Samiee and Leonidas C. Leonidou
Saeed Samiee and Brian R. Chabowski
The country image (CI) literature has grown and represents a prominent body of knowledge. The goal of this study is to unfold its intellectual basis to develop a better understanding of the foundational building blocks and provide future research directions using a multidimensional scaling map of the knowledge upon which CI works is based. We identify 45 CI studies with 3,138 citations. The resultant spatial configuration unfolds six groups of influential works with a shared knowledge base, which assists in identifying areas needing research attention. Based on these results, key avenues for future research are discussed.
Saeed Samiee, Leonidas C. Leonidou and Bilge Aykol
Leonidas C. Leonidou, Saeed Samiee and Valeska V. Geldres
This chapter focuses on the instrumental role of national export promotion programs in helping smaller firms to enhance their international entrepreneurial initiatives. Drawing a parallel between innovative behavior, entrepreneurship and the exporting process, we identify the critical roles of risk-taking, innovativeness and a proactive posture in successfully instilling an entrepreneurial spirit in exploiting export markets. We subsequently illustrate how government export assistance, categorized in terms of financial, informational, education/training, legal, market targeting, marketing and miscellaneous programs, can help firms overcome international entrepreneurship hurdles and achieve superior export performance. Finally, we draw conclusions regarding each component of international entrepreneurship and provide implications for business managers and public policy-makers.
Edited by Leonidas C. Leonidou, Constantine S. Katsikeas, Saeed Samiee and Constantinos N. Leonidou
This book provides an edited volume of 19 chapters focusing on socially responsible international business which are organized into six parts. Part I consists of two chapters which introduce the subject by critically reviewing the pertinent literature. Chapter 1, ‘Socially responsible international business: review, synthesis, and directions’ was written by Leonidou, Katsikeas, Samiee, and Leonidou and offers an integrative review of the extant studies on socially responsible issues published in the top six international business journals. It provides input about the key contributors and the most influential articles on the subject, as well as evaluating the theoretical underpinnings of these studies, their research methodologies, and the main thematic areas tackled. Sinkovics, Sinkovics, and Archie-Acheampong contributed Chapter 2, ‘An overview of social responsibility dimensions in international business.’ This provides an analysis of 484 studies focusing on key firm-related social responsibility issues within an international context, such as those relating to ethical practices, environmental aspects, human rights, and corruption. The results of this analysis indicate an overemphasis of the literature on positive, rather than negative, issues relating to international business social responsibility. Part II includes four chapters examining the role of the foreign external environment – particularly the institutional – on socially responsible international business. In Chapter 3, ‘Trade-offs and institutional contradictions in formulating responsible international business strategies,’ Iyer sheds light on the various trade-offs encountered by MNEs when performing their CSR strategies across countries, due to institutional differences, which may impose conflicting demands and lead to suboptimal choices. These trade-offs refer to instrumental versus non-market objectives, legal compliance versus broader norms, and voluntary versus obligatory actions relating to the firm’s socially responsible behavior. Chapter 4, ‘Institutional drivers of stakeholder engagement and legitimacy of Chinese MNEs,’ was written by Hofman, Li, Sun, and Sun. Their study focuses on Chinese MNEs when operating in Western countries and uses both stakeholder and institutional theories to examine linkages between home–host country institutional distances, stakeholder engagement, and organizational legitimacy. Shin and Oh contributed Chapter 5, ‘Cross-country comparison of corporate social performance: how do institutions matter?’, in which they examine the effect of formal and informal institutions on environmental, social, and corporate governance performance. Using empirical data from 40 different countries, these authors reveal that while a country’s formal institutions affect environmental performance, informal institutions have a significant impact on social performance. Chapter 6, ‘Re-assessing risk in international markets: a strategic, operational, and sustainability taxonomy,’ was prepared by van Tulder and Roman and enquires into the types of risks encountered by MNEs in international markets. Using a longitudinal study among firms from different countries, they reveal an increasing number of risks, particularly those relating to sustainability, which can also be regarded as opportunities or mitigation strategy.
Leonidas C. Leonidou, Constantine S. Katsikeas, Saeed Samiee and Constantinos N. Leonidou
Recent decades have witnessed growing concerns by various stakeholders regarding the social implications of international firms’ activities. This chapter systematically reviews the knowledge contained in 156 articles focusing on socially responsible international business issues, which were published in the top eight international business journals during the period 1995–2017. Our review identifies those scholars and journals that have made the greatest contribution to this line of research, as well as those articles with the greatest impact in the field. Moreover, it shows that this line of research is characterized by increasing maturity, refinement, and advancement as demonstrated by the continuous proliferation of research designs, scope of research, and study methodologies employed. Furthermore, it indicates that research on the subject has taken many diverse courses of thematic areas and topics, which have exhibited different patterns of development over time.